190 REVIEWS Golden-Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China , 1550-2010 by Carol Benedict. Pp. As in other contexts, tobacco became indigenized in China in culturally specific ways even as it became a globalized phenomenon. With more than 300 million smokers, China is a country with a high-burden of tobacco-use and, also, one of five focus countries for the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. In 1638 around 3,000,000 pounds of Virginian tobacco was sent to England for sale and by the 1680’s Jamestown was producing over 25,000,000 pounds of tobacco per year for export to Europe. Photograph of two opium eaters in Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911). Much of this domestically produced tobacco was traded locally or intraregionally, but by the eighteenth century a thriving market had also developed for high-end tobacco leaf produced in specialized growing districts... From its earliest introduction in the late Ming period to its wide dispersal in the Qing era, NewWorld tobacco traveled inmultiple directions and alongmyriad paths to become “Chinese.” This process of transculturation was not unique to China, of course, but occurred at roughly the same pace in other parts of Eurasia where other peoplewere first learning to use Amerindian tobacco. Its factory in the Pudong district of Shanghai by 1919 was producing more than 243 million cigarettes per week.[Photo/tobaccochina.com]. The content (including but not limited to text, photo, multimedia information, etc) published in this site belongs to China Daily Information Co (CDIC). By the year 1948, the cultivation area of flue-cured tobacco in China had reached 0.16 million ha and this number further increased to about 0.41 million by the year 1967. Although civilians were banned from the puff of pleasure, China's top leaders in the older generation took up the practice with gusto. Log in to your personal account or through your institution. document.write(oTime.getFullYear()); Coming to the figure 430,000,000, he exclaimed, "That is where we are going to sell cigarettes." [Photo/bwg.police.sh.cn]. Carol Benedict follows the spread of Chinese tobacco use from the sixteenth century, when it was introduced to China from the New World, through the development of commercialized tobacco cultivation, and to the present day. Golden-Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550-2010. "From the long-stemmed pipe to snuff, the water pipe, hand-rolled cigarettes, and finally, manufactured cigarettes, the history of tobacco in China is the fascinating story of a commodity that became a hallmark of modern mass consumerism. This book gives a detailed early history as well as a well-referenced account of the spread Wax statues of Lin Zexu (right) and Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911) Emperor Daoguang in Fuzhou city of Fujian province on May 23, 2013. 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Tobacco has been pervasive in China almost since its introduction from the Americas in the mid-sixteenth century. Millions of rural immigrants moved to the city, drawn by factory jobs and the expectation of a... From the seventeenth until at least the late nineteenth century, many Chinese women of all social ranks consumed tobacco just as their menfolk did. Catherine was so impressed with snuff’s palliative effect on her In 1817, the British began to sell a narcotic drug, Indian opium, to China as a way to reduce the trade deficit and to make the Indian colony profitable. [ citation needed ] China tobacco also markets premium brands, notably Chunghwa . China became a Party to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control on January 9, 2006. Buy Golden-Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550-2010 by Carol Benedict (ISBN: 9780520262775) from Amazon's Book Store. Smoke Free Places Smoking is completely prohibited in at least 28 indoor public places, including medical facilities, restaurants, bars, and most public transportation. China Tobacco, like many other tobacco companies, produces a plethora of brands – over 900, the largest of which, Hongtashan (Red Pagoda Hill), accounts for only 4% of total sales. China, with its then-430,000,000 potential customers, he told company executives, “is where we are going to sell cigarettes.”¹ When informed that the Chinese did not yet smoke cigarettes, Duke said he supposed they could learn. Taking the long view, as I do in the preceding pages, not only allows for comparisons with other societies undergoing similar transformations in their own local cultures of tobacco consumption since 1550 or so; it also facilitates analysis of continuity and change in Chinese consumption practices across the late imperial–modern divide. Despite its common origins in the Americas, NewWorld tobacco followed a somewhat different historical trajectory in China than it did in Europe. The chairman and his cigarette lighting fans, 1957. 369,705 people involved in drug making, trafficking and selling were detected and punished. From the long-stemmed pipe to snuff, the water pipe, hand-rolled cigarettes, and finally, manufactured cigarettes, the history of tobacco in China is the fascinating story of a commodity that became a hallmark of modern mass consumerism. Average annual outputs were 0.965, 2.106 and 2.921 million tonnes for the periods 1970-1978, 1979-1992 and 1993-1999, respectively. Without written authorization from CDIC, such content shall not be republished or used in any form. China, India, and Brazil are the leading producers of this plant in the world. Production of tobacco in China increased during the past three decades. All rights reserved. Earlier chapters describe China’s dynamic culture... JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Tobacco was introduced to China in the 16th and 17th centuries (Benedict, 2011). WHO age-standardized prevalence for daily adult smoking in China was estimated to be 22% in 2012. As detailed in chapter 3, historical and literary representations of Qing-era women consuming tobacco— be it the peasant woman with her rough-hewn pipe or the upperclass matron with her more elegant and refined water pipe— are too common to allow for any other interpretation. Tobacco, a New World crop, became globally enjoyed beginning in the sixteenth century, and Benedict shows us how fully the Chinese have participated in its … From the long-stemmed pipe to snuff, the water pipe, hand-rolled cigarettes, and finally, manufactured cigarettes, the history of tobacco in China is the story of a commodity that became a hallmark of modern mass consumerism. Granted, therewere gendered differences in the location of consumption: Chinese men could smoke in public, but well-mannered women smoked privately out of view. China alone produces ten times more tobacco than the US. In 1752, Li Ê, the Han River Poetry Society lyricist who had so passionately promoted tobacco during his lifetime, passed away in his beloved city of Hangzhou. Prior to 1900, Chinese women, “respectable” or not, smoked... Tobacco’s centuries-long career in China sheds light on many themes: the history of Chinese material culture, China’s long-standing participation in transregional and international trade, and shifting patterns of popular and elite consumption, as well as the changing intersections of gender and consumption. When American tobacco tycoon James Duke (1865–1925) heard about the invention of the cigarette-rollingmachine in 1881, he reportedly leafed through an atlas to find the legend listing the world’s largest population. on JSTOR. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. The earliest tobacco control legislation in the world was in Asia (Singapore, 1970) and bans on duty-free cigarettes (Singapore) and on smokeless tobacco (Hong Kong, 1987), as well as the use of tobacco tax to fund health promotion (Thailand) have … The anti-smoking campaign in China has the potential to change the course of the tobacco epidemic, a serious public health concern, within China and in the world. Here he speaks with former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, while preparing to light up: US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger in conversation with Deng Xiaoping. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. An advertisement for Shanghai's Meili brand cigarettes in the 1920s.[Photo/tobaccochina.com]. In April 1935, the Kuomintang Party that then governed China issued a decree that aimed to eliminate drugs in two years and cigarettes in six years. Mao's successor Deng Xiaoping, another chain smoker, loved expensive Panda cigarettes, and often proffered them to visiting dignitaries. --> The Qing Administration originally tolerated opium importation because it created an indirect tax on Chinese subjects, while allowing the British to double tea exports from China to England. Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911) Emperor Kang Xi. Advertisements featuring fashionable courtesans, or sing-song girls of Shanghai around the 1920s testified that the imported habit was trendy in what was then one of Asia's biggest cities. xiii + 334. From the long-stemmed pipe to snuff, the water pipe, hand-rolled cigarettes, and finally, manufactured cigarettes, the history of tobacco in China is the fascinating story of a commodity that became a … [Photo/tobaccochina.com]. Square dancing in Russia's most famous square. The plant depletes the soil of nitrogen China's anti-smoking movement was first recorded in 1639, when Ming Dynasty (AD 1368-1644) Emperor Chongzhen issued a national ban on tobacco and stipulated that tobacco addicts be executed. In the year just before he died, however, Li Ê sadly noted that although his desire for tobacco was still great, he could no longer smoke because his lungswere diseased (fei ji).¹ Physicians in attendance at the time of Li’s passing would not have explained his affliction in terms of cancer, emphysema, or any other smoking-related illness now associated with tobacco. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. [Photo/xinhuanet.com.cn]. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and The tobacco plant was first brought to China in the 1570s, from the island of Luzon, in what is today the Philippines, by Chen Zhenlong, a merchant from Fujian. China's anti-smoking movement was first recorded in 1639, when Ming Dynasty (AD 1368-1644) Emperor Chongzhen issued a national ban on tobacco and stipulated that tobacco addicts be executed. More than half of all adult men in China are regular smokers. Much earlier in European history, well before snuff got a foothold in China, Catherine de’ Medici, the queen of France and wife of Henry II, had been a snuff convert. The gradual geographical diffusion of commercial tobacco cultivation that occurred between 1600 and 1750 as outlined in chapter 2 resulted not only in a profusion of inexpensive local tobaccos but also in a... Tobacco usewas already pervasive throughout Chinawhen the machine-rolled cigarette first began to take hold in Chinese treaty ports toward the end of the nineteenth century. Although tobacco was consumed in China as early as the 1500s, cigarettes didn't arrive until the late 1800s, according to the archives at the US's Duke University, immediately after the invention of the cigarette machine in 1881, James B. Duke (1865—1925) is reported to have leafed through a world atlas to survey the population of foreign countries. Farmlands were inspected to eliminate opium poppies. The ready availability of cigarettes in most areas of the country encouraged many Chinese smokers to abandon snuff and pipe tobacco in favor of rolled tobacco products. Along the way, she analyzes the factors that have shaped China's highly gendered tobacco cultures, and shows how they have evolved within a broad, comparative world-historical framework. Golden-Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550–2010 - Kindle edition by Benedict, Carol. Try logging in through your institution for access. In 1637, Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911) Emperor Kangxi expanded the death penalty to those who possess tobacco.

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