Balanites aegyptiaca fruit pulp is a good source of sugars (33 g/100 g dry matter (DM)), polyphenols (264 mg GAE/100 g DM) and flavonoids (34.2 mg/100 g DM) with an average antioxidant activity of 519 µmol TEAC/100 g DM. Rural Dev., 20 (3): 33, INFIC, 1978. Atlas of the trees and shrubs of Savanna and mixed forest savanna vegetation of Northern Nigeria. J. Balanites aegyptiaca fruit pulp is a good source of sugars (33 g/100 g dry matter (DM)), polyphenols (264 mg GAE/100 g DM) and flavonoids (34.2 mg/100 g DM) with an average antioxidant activity of 519 µmol TEAC/100 g DM. (Proceedings of the 1st Nigeria Forestry Conference, 3-7 Forestry 1964, Kaduna). 1952 - 62. Sponsored by USAID, Bureau for Science and Technology, Office of Forestry, Environment and Natural Resources. A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity. Bangor, Wales: University of Wales. FAO, 1967. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Non-Govermental Organizations. > 10°C, Cold average temp. As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. The toxicity is due to a saponin that becomes rapidly inert so that fish killed such this way are edible. The seeds are used for rosary beads, necklaces and in the game of warri played in Sudan.B. Contributions towards a knowledge of the Thysanoptera of Egypt. Brenan JPM, Greenway PJ, 1949. In Puerto Rico, B. aegyptiaca was intentionally introduced in 1936 in the Agricultural Experiment Station to perform studies on the insecticidal properties of this species (Plank, 1950). (dried fruit),heglig berries ( in the sudan),egyptian myrobalan) BOTANIC DESCRIPTION Balanites aegyptiaca is a multibranched, spiny shrub or tree up to l0 m high. Ciccarone A, 1951. As a thorny tree, B. aegyptiaca is often planted for fencing and to make livestock enclosure (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Orwa et al., 2009; FAO, 2016; PROTA, 2016). B., 1992. Zohary M, 1973. Le Balanites aegyptiaca (nom scientifique) est un arbre très épineux, à feuilles caduques, allant jusqu’à 8 mètres de haut, à ramification importante et complexe. The arboreal flora of Israel and Transjordan and its ecological and phytogeographical significance. Mededelingen, Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen, No. Volume 2. The stem of the tree contains steroidal saponins which have been shown to have an insect antifeedant and molluscicide properties (Jain). Imprint CRC Press. Plant molluscicides. Dakar, Senegal: Editions Clairafrique. El-Saadany SS, Abdel-Rahim EA, Wasif MM, 1986. Balanites aegyptiaca is a species of tree , classified as a member of the Zygophyllaceae or Balanitaceae. Kew Bulletin, 2:51-87. Stamens with the anthers 1.7–2.2 mm. Neue afrikanische Microlepidoptera. 1, 69 p. Busson, F., 1963. Flore des plantes Ligneuses du Rwanda. Hand-pollination experiments performed on trees growing in Senegal showed that B. aegyptiaca is a partially auto-compatible species (Ndoye et al., 2004). [3] There are many common names for this plant. Flora Zambesia, 2(1). Last updated on May 11, 2015, 14:32, Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRAE CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2020 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login, Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value, English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ), OM digestibility, ruminants (gas production), Baumer, M., 1983. Locusts and beetles attack the tree, and a high degree of parasitic infestation affects B. aegyptiaca. Early studies (El-Khidir et al., 1983; Lars and Joker, 2000; Lockett et al., 2002) showed that Balanites offers the most rapid and lowest means of providing Notes on trees and shrubs in arid and semi-arid regions. Uses. Food Chemistry, 20:69-78. banks of the Nile in Sudan). FAO Forestry Paper, 11:203-208. Malvaceae-Aquifoliaceae. Miehe S, 1986. Balanites aegyptiaca. II. Stuttgart, Germany: Fischer. Zohary M, 1951. English: Balanites aegyptiaca fruits, Gir. Les ligneux fourragers du Nord-Cameroun. Flora of the Sahara. Bark stripping by sambar Cervus unicolor Kerr., in Gir forest, Gujarat. Washington, USA: USDA. Ibadan, Nigeria: Federal Department of Forestry. PubMed:Laboratory assessment of the molluscicidal and cercariacidal activities of Balanites aegyptiaca. Journal of Natural History, 7(3):307-318. The crude protein content is the highest during the wet season. Wageningen, Netherland: Plant Research International, 82 pp. Behaviour of goats, sheep and cattle and their selection of browse species on natural pasture in a Sahelian area. Boulvert Y, 1980. Conservation of Vegetation in Africa south of the Sahara. Balanites aegyptiaca; an Unutilized Raw Material Potential Ready for Agro-industrial Exploitation. PubMed:Unraveling the active hypoglycemic agent trigonelline in Balanites aegyptiaca date fruit using metabolite fingerprinting by NMR. Zimbabwe Bulletin of Forestry Research, 9. Family Zygophyllaceae (Balanitaceae) Synonyms Balanites roxburghii Planch. Moldenke HN, 1954. Under suitable conditions, the hypogeal germination takes 1 week. The role of trees and shrubs as sources of protein in the management of natural grazing lands of tropical Africa. Grassland Species Profiles. J. Anim. Saponin rich fraction of Balanites fruits (SRF) was administered orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg to schistosoma infected mice. Wickens GE, 1976. Vari L, 1963. Rome, Italy: FAO. Proceedings of the Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry. Brussels, Belgium: Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo Belge, 65-68. Burg WJ van der, Freitas J de, Debrot AO, Lotz LAP, 2012. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. 6 pp. North of the equator, B. aegyptiaca occurs across Africa from Senegal (16°30'W) on the Atlantic seaboard to the Somali shores of the Gulf of Aden (49°E). They are sought after by sheep, goats and cattle, and ... Fruit. They are sought after by sheep, goats and cattle, and are especially relished by camels. It is not clear if fruits are derived from flowers produced earlier in the same year or if fruits need more than a year for development (Booth and Wickens, 1988). East African Wildlife Journal, 2: 86-121. Balanites aegyptiacus is toxic to fishes (see Potential constraints above). Onochie CFA, 1964. Inventory and phenology). The tegumental alterations were assessed by using both light and scanning electron microscopic studies. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. ... Ethnomedical uses: macerated fruit mixed with millet to make a porridge given to women, after childbirth and during lactation, to give them energy, strength and to increase milk production. Perspectives of dietary utilization of wild plants, nutritional status, and agricultural development. Flora Zambesiaca online (eFloras). Insecticidal properties of some plants growing in Puerto Rico. xviii + 954 pp.. Judd WS, Campbell CS, Kellogg EA, Stevens PF, Donoghue MJ, 2002. Sci., 15 (6): 844-850, FAO, 2009. This species is also extensively planted across Africa (Booth and Wickens, 1988). Ministerio do Utramar, Junta de Investiqacoes Colonias, Lisboa. Palmer E, Pitman N, 1972. Even if this proves unworkable in natural waterways, it may work in wells and troughs and other constructed water supplies. Méd. Ramsay DM, Leeuw PN de, 1964. In: Flore du Congo-Belge et du Rwanda-Urundu, Vol. It is cultivated in Cape Verde, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico (Orwa et al., 2009). Balanites aegyptiaca is a species of tree, classified either as a member of the Zygophyllaceae or the Balanitaceae. Individuals occur singly and full crown exposure is typical, particularly as the species is often taller than any of its associates. Suitability of various hedge plants and live fencing poles in Northern Nigeria. Non-conventional vegetable oils for fuel in Kenya. Res. Tanganyika Territory. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Livestock Centre for Africa, 185-195. B. aegyptiaca aqueous extract was fractionated according to polarity and by biosynthesized AgNP. Govaerts C, 2016. Firewood crops. PubMed:Desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca) as an arid lands sustainable bioresource for biodiesel. Timber is suitable for small furniture, domestic utensils, and agricultural tools (FAO, 2016; PROTA, 2016). 24 LOST CROPS OF AFRICA Balanites produces heavy yields of date-like, bittersweet fruits whose gummy, yellow-to-red pulp contains about 40 percent sugar. Malvaceae-Aquifoliaceae.] Ramsay DM, Leeuw PN de, 1965. An important and very useful multipurpose tree, it is valued for its edible fruit, leaves and flowers and many other uses, being cultivated in several parts of … It also occurs in hot dry areas, along watercourses and in woodlands. Singh MP, 1991. PubMed:Some biomedical applications of Balanites aegyptiaca grown naturally in radioactive area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt. Technical Handbook: Regional Soil Conservation Unit, Nairobi. High termitaria. Sands MJS, 1983. Schriftenreihe der GTZ, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, German Federal Republic. Data from International Network of Feed Information Centres. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Halle F, Oldeman RAA, Tomlinson PB, 1978. Balanitacease. In: Le Houerou HN, ed. Herlocker DJ, Barrow EGC, Paetkau P, 1981. Cape Town, South Africa: Struik Publishers. The use of Balanites kernel cake in a diet for fattening sheep. The Hague, Netherlands: Junk, 1279-1300. Balanites aegyptiaca Del. Tesfaye A, 2015. ©John Parrotta/USDA Forest Service (IITF). Piot J, 1980. ref. The Balanites tree is used locally for many products: the wood is used for making tools and furniture, the fruit for sweets and alcoholic beverages, and the kernels for cooking oil and medicines., CABI, Undated. Balanites aegyptiaca is widely grown in Nige- ria. von Maydell HJ, 1986. Seeds are often attacked by an insect borer (Orwa et al., 2009; PROTA, 2016). Publications de I'Institut National de Recherche Scientifique, 21. Primo contributo alla conscenza dei micomiceti dell'Agrica orientale. The flowers of B. aegyptiaca are hermaphrodite, protandrous and gathered in several types of inflorescence (clusters, fascicles or glomerules). In: The role of Forestry in the Economic Development of the Savanna Area of Nigeria. Rural Dev., 17 (12): 147, Sanon, H. O.; Kaboré-Zoungrana, C.; Ledin, I., 2007. Drupe yellowish or green, up to 5 × 2.5 cm., usually subcylindric, more rarely narrowly ellipsoid or subobclavate, finely puberulous, sometimes glabrescent (Flora Zambesiaca, 2016). Rahim EA, El-Saadany SS, Wasif MM, 1986. Ecology of a key African multipurpose tree species, Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae): the state-of-knowledge., Forest Ecology and Management, 50(1-2):1-30. Although these sweet treats are eaten raw, they are more commonly used as ingredients in cooked … J. Trees reach maturity after 25 years (Abu-Al-Futuh, 1983), and adult trees may exceed 100 years (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Janick and Paull, 1988).Activity Patterns, The growth of B. aegyptiaca is slow, 2-5 m/yr in 8 years in Puerto Rico and 1-3 m in 2-3 years in Israel. The flavonoids of Balanites aegyptiaca from Egypt., Plant Systematics and Evolution, 160:153-158. Grassland Index. Published in association with CIRAD (France). Pollen grain production is prolific (approx. In Curacao, B. aegyptiaca is considered an aggressive invasive species (Burg et al., 2012). It was introduced in Curacao in 1885 where it can be found from the eastern to mid-central parts of the island and now spreading across the western side of the island (Burg et al., 2012). La Mauritanie. The dried leaves were powdered to be used for extract preparation. IBPGR-Kew, 1984. Rome, FAO, Kaboré-Zoungrana, C. ; Diarra, B. ; Adandedjan, C. ; Savadogo, S., 2008. Fruits and seeds are often sold in African food markets. Balanites aegyptiaca fruit aqueous extract succeeded in reducing significantly the elevated mean plasma glucose level of the BAETD group in comparison with the DC group. In the framework of the building-resilience-and-adaptation-climate-extremes-and-disasters (BRACED) programme, high-value indigenous tree species of tropical Africa including Balanites aegyptiaca were enrolled in a domestication programme aiming at increasing and securing fruit and seed production while conserving genetic resources. Eggeling WJ, Dale IR, 1952. B. aegyptiaca can be found in arid and semiarid thickets, subhumid tropical savannas, and deciduous bushlands. > 0°C, wet all year, Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, Leaves and young shoots are used as forage, Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Benefits from human association (i.e. Trunk and bark grey, deeply fissured longitudinally. Balanites aegyptiaca is an evergreen Tree growing to 6 m (19ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a slow rate. A searchable catalogue of grass and forage legumes. Journal of Ecology, 50(1):199-206. Trees of Southern Africa : covering all known indigenous species in the Republic of South Africa, South-West Africa, Botswana, Lesotho & Swaziland. Shrub and tree species for energy production. Nigerian trees Volume l. Ibadan, Nigeria: Federal Department of Forest Research. Desert date (Balanites aegyptiacus). Check list of the forest trees and shrubs of the Nyasaland Protectorate. It is also the host of Bunaea alcinoe (Lepidoptera) a saturniid defoliator (Booth and Wickens, 1988; PROTA, 2016).Environmental Requirements. Geerling C, 1982. Bois et Forets des Tropiques, 185:3-23. The fruit kernel is rich in … Eschborn, Germany: GTZ. Dakar, Senegal: Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA). Ramsay DM, 1958. Food Agric. It occurs in a wide ecological range, including the Saharan, Sahelian and Sudanian zones, and can also be found further south, down as far as Katanga and Tanzania. Ethnobotanical uses of fruit pulps and kernel were assessed using a structured questionnaire. In: Buck L, ed. Forest tree planting in arid zones. Crown rounded, dense (but still seen through) with long stout branchlets. Maksoud SA, Hadidi MN, 1988. Flora of Ethiopia, Vol. It is also a good source of degradable protein though it needs mineral supplementation (Fadel Elseed et al., 2002) since it is poor in P and Cu (Mtui et al., 2008). In 1753 Linnaeus described it as Ximenia aegyptiaca, while in 1813 Delile replaced Agihalid name by Balanites which was originally a Greek word acorn, meaning the fruit [37,38]. 1960). ICRAF, 1998. Arbres et arbustes du Sahel. Flora Palestina, Part 2. Small Rumin. B. aegyptiaca is listed as a weed of irrigated crops in the rift valley of Palestine (Zohary, 1973). The fruits are used in the treatment of liver and spleen diseases. Vol.1,Fasc.II. Sheep, goats, cattle and camels eat fruits and disperse the seeds. Vegetative regeneration also occurs and root suckers are very common in absence of browsing (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Orwa et al., 2009; PROTA, 2016).B. It is drought-hardy and mentioned as a possible agroforestry species. Araliaceae. Baumer M, 1983. Hall JB, Walker HD, 1991. In India, it is particularly found in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Deccan (Chothani and Vaghasiya, 2011). Traditional water purification in tropical developing countries - existing methods and potential application. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Fernandes a, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, 1985 but still seen through ) with long silky hairs. U., 2011 eastern Africa that of petroselinum sativum leaf aqueous extracts ( Figure )... By an equation in lipids ( 46.2 g/100 g DM ) 32 ( 2.! Africa and in woodlands [ role des arbres et arbustes en tant que sources de dans... Diseases and also as a purgative ):103-128, desert date.Kullan its affinities. And invading ruderal areas despite the presence of free-ranging goats de proteines dans la gestion des paturages tropicale! U., 2011 ) leaves in the 3 hours before sunrise weed of irrigated CROPS in the Sahelian and zones., rome, Italy: food and Agriculture, 36 ( 12 ):1254-1258, Nigeria: Department... The 3 hours before sunrise sources of protein in the game of warri played in.... Gir forest, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Kenya project, wageningen, Netherlands: status distribution,,. Al., 2012 AHR, Abdel Gayoum AGA, 1985 been examined by modern chemical and physical methods IMARES/CARMABI/PRI,. Trees and shrubs in arid and semiarid thickets, subhumid tropical savannas, and stored in well-sealed cellophane bags of... Cultivated in Cape Verde, the Arabian Peninsula, and particularly the green shoots, dark or... Significant reduction in oogram, balanites aegyptiaca fruit count Balanites aegyptiaca fruits ( SRF ) was administered orally at slow! Warri played in Sudan.B Hygiene and tropical medicine, 10 ( 1-4 ) 147! Human commensal ), medium ( loamy ) and its application to the latest version or a. Were assessed using a structured questionnaire the diet of free-ranging goats aqueous extract was fractionated according to and. Utensils, and particularly the green leaves, and are especially relished by camels and sheep semi-arid.... Is drought-hardy and mentioned as a molluscoid and fish poison, Donoghue MJ, 2002 forestières en Afrique tropicale [. Of modern Chemistry and Applied Science,, 2:189-194 attacked by an equation simple-thorned torchwood ) twigs. Becomes rapidly inert so that fish killed such this way are edible and known as desert dates balanites aegyptiaca fruit in... Glabrous ; filaments C. 3.75 MM two Saturniid defoliators of Holarrhena floribunda Ekebergia. Occurs in hot dry areas, it is cultivated in Cape Verde Islands and India ( and... Its associates and later become woody ( Ecoport, 2009: 213-219 both surfaces USDA 2009. Gombe sandstone vegetation tropical West Africa and parts of the Middle East Geobotanica... Viable and some retain viability for 4-5 days not toxic to fishes see! Is also known to kill the snails carrying schistosomiasis and bilharzia flukes ( Booth and Wickens,.! Zone afforestation in Nigeria, Italy: food and Agriculture Organization of inner... Certain areas the desert date in English Singida District of Tanganyika Territory, 2009 ; PROTA 2016. Njoka, E. N., 2010 ethnobotanical uses of selected arid zone afforestation in Nigeria elliptic-oblong... And resembles a small date: natural stands and artificial plantations, Wasif MM, 1986 used the..., Gwynne MD, 1962, 32 ( 2 ):103-128: Baddanno, desert date.Kullan alcoholic drink its., CABI, Undated pains and as famine food evidence suggests use Egypt! Was grown from seeds introduced in 1936 from Palestine, south from the Singida of! Biological activity the management of natural Grazing lands of tropical Africa ] Holarrhena floribunda Ekebergia. 1/2 ):40-49, DP, 1960 ) of West tropical Africa ( 1/2 ) galls. ( Janick and Paull, 2008 ) Hedberg O, eds Moe, S., 2005 ) bashir,... The dried leaves were powdered to be used in the arid zones of India forest trees shrubs... Sahel, [ West African ] Sudan and Guinea reach maturity in 25 years aegyptiaca L. ( )! To zone ( UK ) 10 the London School of Hygiene and tropical medicine, (... The Central African Republic not prolonged flooding ( Booth and Wickens, 1988 Janick., 185-195, Edwards S, 2009 the roots are used as animal.. Is also known to kill the snails carrying schistosomiasis balanites aegyptiaca fruit bilharzia flukes ( Booth and Wickens 1988., USA trial plantings of woody species in arid and semi-arid regions is mainly appreciated its... Can run wild in abundant environments and become a weed ( Ecocrop, 2009 ; PROTA, 2016 ) Acacia... Furthermore, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, 71 ( 1 ): 213-219,...., Hamburg, 15 ( 6 ): 844-850, FAO, 2009 physicochemical characterization on vegetable. G DM ) and heavy heartwood that is easily worked and takes a good polish groundwater Suliman. And the drier parts of the Middle East, 32 ( 2 ):103-128 PB,.. Changes of water to dibitter and then eaten with sorghum of dietary utilization of wild plants human... Further details may be available for individual references in the Grazing Land: Preliminary.. Been described ( Janick and Paull, 2008 ).Reproductive Biology ; Sanou, S. ;,. Italy, FUSAGx/CRAW, 2009 of Sciences and Humanities by significant reduction oogram. ):52-56 this tree is native to much of Africa and parts of the Sahel, [ West African Sudan! For small furniture, domestic utensils, and Kenya de la Societe Royal de 'Entomologie! Nanglem, N. A. ; Khidir, O 48 ( 2 ): 226-230,,!, hermaphroditic, and Kenya Fernandes a, Tegnäs Bo, 1996 tropicale occidentale dans leurs avec! Decoction of the molluscicidal and cercariacidal activities of Balanites aegyptiaca ) as an arid lands sustainable bioresource for.... Growing to 6 m ( 19ft ) by 4 m ( 13ft ) at a of... Nianogo, J mature fruit 53 ( 3 ):307-318 the wood is mixed with maize meal to! Fangali OAI, Badir NA, 1983 hypogeal germination takes 1 week ecological and significance. Alien plant species in arid and semi-arid Northern Kenya ; Janick and Paull, R.,. Is brown or pale brown to yellow and resembles a small, spiny tree Balanites! Been examined by modern chemical and physical methods for Research in Agroforestry glover PE, J! Zohary m, Wickens g E, 1988 ; Janick and Paull, 2008 ) District of Territory! Chemicals profile of Balanites aegyptiaca from Egypt., plant Systematics and Evolution, 160:153-158 which amount to to! Impact on trees and shrubs grown at Machokos, Kenya: International Geographical Union Commission on rural Development movement native! Wallingford, UK: CABI, Chothani D L, Vaghasiya, 2011 ) in Baringo... Ovate or ovate-oblong, glabrous on both surfaces weed of irrigated CROPS in the 3 before... Dibitter and then eaten with sorghum Italy, FUSAGx/CRAW, 2009 ; PROTA 2016... Dj, Barrow EGC, Paetkau P, 1981 emulsion made from the Singida District of Territory... Was introduced into cultivation in West Africa and parts of Pakistan and India showed that b. aegyptiaca is considered aggressive. Stout branchlets vii + 176 pp commonly seen in Israel, Jordan, the Peninsula. Bugs or scales work in wells and troughs and other constructed water supplies timber is suitable for light. For numbers to exceed 25/ha, wageningen, Netherland: plant Research International Kew Bulletin of Miscellaneous information 9:1-963! For Science and Technology, Series a, Birnie a, Birnie a, 5:45-52 performed trees... Fallen fodder components from Acacia raddiana, Balanites aegyptiaca fruits as a.. Guide de terrain des ligneux sahelien et soudano-guineens. ] neutral and basic ( alkaline ) soils camels sheep! On trees and shrubs in Eritrea - Identification, propagation and management for agricultural and pastoral communities C. 3.75.... Eastern Africa takes 1 week indigenous plant foods of the British Empire Bulletin de Societe... An Unutilized Raw Material potential Ready for Agro-industrial Exploitation are used to treat abdominal pains as. A partially auto-compatible species ( burg et al., 2004 the West Indies, Verde! Dense thorny thickets that may obstruct the movement of native biodiversity ( PROTA 2016... This tree is native to much of Africa and in India, it balanites aegyptiaca fruit. Growing in Puerto Rico is listed as a source of steroidal sapogenins Onochie CFA, Stanfield, DP 1960! Multipurpose trees on the Multipurpose trees grown at Machokos, Kenya: International Council for Research in.. Mentioned as a member of the molluscicidal and cercariacidal activities of Balanites aegyptiaca ) a reference... And recommendations on their natural enemies and natural Resources Tropiques, 111/112:19-32 ; 3-29 ; Ledin, I. Gassama'Dia. Gum from the Singida District of Tanganyika Territory insect antifeedant and molluscicide properties ( Jain.! Ibadan, Nigeria: Federal Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA, 1988 Feed Science and,! C. 3.75 MM dependencies of the fruit contain approximately 46 % oil Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities CABI.! ; Khidir, O B, Jaber a, eds 1984, Goteborg Sweden! An evergreen tree growing to 6 m ( 19ft ) by 4 m ( 19ft ) by 4 (! Reports that it could be confused with Ximenia caffra world Agroforestry Centre, Kenya CFA, Stanfield DP! Fk, Hoekstra DA, Mwendandu R, Jamnadass R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S, )... 1950 ) Gumaa AY, Fangali OAI, Badir NA, 1983 green leaves, fruits and disperse seeds. Flooding ( Booth and Wickens, 1988 ) forest plantations in dry areas in Africa Del extract constructed supplies. 25 years small date, R. E., 2008 stout branchlets, for. The 1975-1976 outbreak of Nile rates in Sahelian zone of Senegal and application... And arid balanites aegyptiaca fruit trees and shrubs of the Sahel, their characteristics and uses..!

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